Nix

I do all my development using Nix and cabal these days, and I can happily say that they work in harmony very well. My current workflow is very new, in that it relies on features in nixpkgs that have only just reached the master branch. As such, the first thing you’ll need to do is clone nixpkgs from Github:

cd ~
git clone git://github.com/nixos/nixpkgs

(In the future this won’t be necessary, but right now it is).

Single Project Usage

Now that we have a nixpkgs clone, we can start using the haskellng package set. haskellng is a rewrite of how we package things in Nix, and is of interest to us for being more predictable (package names match Hackage package names) and more configurable. First, we’ll install the cabal2nix tool, which can automate some things for us, and we’ll also install cabal-install to provide the cabal executable:

nix-env -f ~/nixpkgs -i -A haskellngPackages.cabal2nix -A haskellngPackages.cabal-install

From this point, it’s all pretty much clear sailing.

If you’re starting a new project, you can just call cabal init in a new directory, as you would normally. When you’re ready to build, you can turn this .cabal file into a development environment:

cabal init
# answer the questions
cabal2nix --shell my-project.cabal > shell.nix

This gives you a shell.nix file, which can be used with nix-shell. You don’t need to use this very often though - the only time you’ll usually use it is with cabal configure:

nix-shell -I ~ --command 'cabal configure'

cabal configure caches absolute paths to everything, so now when you want to build you just use cabal build as normal:

cabal build

Whenever your .cabal file changes you’ll need to regenerate shell.nix - just run the command above, and then cabal configure afterwards.

Multiple Project Usage

The approach scales nicely to multiple projects, but it requires a little bit more manual work to “glue” everything together. To demonstrate how this works, lets consider my socket-io library. This library depends on engine-io, and I usually develop both at the same time.

The first step to Nix-ifying this project is to generate default.nix expressions along side each individual .cabal file:

cabal2nix engine-io/engine-io.cabal > engine-io/default.nix
cabal2nix socket-io/socket-io.cabal > socket-io/default.nix

These default.nix expressions are functions, so we can’t do much right now. To call the functions, we write our own shell.nix file that explains how to combine everything. For engine-io/shell.nix, we don’t have to do anything particularly clever:

with (import <nixpkgs> {}).pkgs;
(haskellngPackages.callPackage ./. {}).env

For socket-io, we need to depend on engine-io:

with (import <nixpkgs> {}).pkgs;
let modifiedHaskellPackages = haskellngPackages.override {
      overrides = self: super: {
        engine-io = self.callPackage ../engine-io {};
        socket-io = self.callPackage ./. {};
      };
    };
in modifiedHaskellPackages.socket-io.env

Now we have shell.nix in each environment, so we can use cabal configure as before.

The key observation here is that whenever engine-io changes, we need to reconfigure socket-io to detect these changes. This is as simple as running

cd socket-io; nix-shell -I ~ --command 'cabal configure'

Nix will notice that ../engine-io has changed, and rebuild it before running cabal configure.